VOE (verification of employment) is the process through which a lender reviews the employment history of a borrower. The process allows the borrower to determine job stability and income history of the borrower to estimate their loan eligibility.
Most borrowers disclose their employment history when filling out a Uniform Residential Loan Application (URLA) for a loan. Section IV on the Freddie Mac Form 65 or the Fannie Mae Form 1003 is the section where the borrower discloses their employment history. Other forms, such as Form 4506-T (for self-employed individuals), can also be used.
Typically, mortgage lenders then verify the information provided by the borrower through phone contact with the employer. But lenders also request verification from employers through fax or email communication.